Aim:- Synthesis of Graphene


What is Graphene?

It is an allotrope of C (Carbon) that exists as a two-dimensional planar sheet. It is technically a nonmetal but generally referred to quasi-metal as it has properties of being like a semiconducting metal. It also has many other properties that can’t be found in other non-metallic materials. In it, every Carbon has a covalent bond with three other Carbon atoms hexagonal array, leaving one free electron per each carbon atom.

Aim- Synthesis of Graphene photo
Aim:- Synthesis of Graphene

The synthesis of Graphene can be done mainly by 3 methods, they are:

  • Chemical Vapor Deposition
  • Chemical or Plasma Exfoliation from natural Graphite
  • Mechanical cleavage from natural Graphite

Aim:- Synthesis of Graphene.

This Guide to Graphene Synthesis, Properties, and Applications is intended to convey a general understanding of these topics for both Scientists & Non-Scientists alike.


Chemicals:- H2SO4, Graphite flakes, H3PO4, KMnO4, H2O2, HCL, Ethanol, distilled water.

Equipment:- Stirrer, Ice bath filter of polyester fibre, PTFE Membrane, U.S. Standard testing sieve.


  1. 9:1 mixture of H2SO4 / H3PO(Concentration) was added to a mixture of graphite flakes(3gm).
  2. 18gm, 6wt equivalent KMnO4 was added to produce slight exotherm to 30-400c.
  3. The mixer is heated to 50c and stirred for 12 hours.
  4. The mixture was then poured onto the ice with 30% H2O(3ml).
  5. The mixture was shifted through a metal U.S. standard testing sieve (300m) and filtered through polyester fibre.
  6. Filter was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 4 hours and the supernatant was decanted away.
  7. The solid material was then washed in succession with 200 ml. of water, 200 ml. of 30% HCL  and 200 ml. of ethanol (2x) for each wash the mixture was shifted through the U.S. standard testing sieve and filtered through polyester fibre.
  8. Multiple wash process was coagulated with 200 ml. of ethanol and the resulting suspension was filtered over a PTFE membrane with .45μm pore size.
  9. The solid, obtained on the filter was vacuum dried overnight at room temperature is the desired product.


Graphene has been synthesized.

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