What is Graphene?
It is an allotrope of C (Carbon) that exists as a two-dimensional planar sheet. It is technically a nonmetal but generally referred to quasi-metal as it has properties of being like a semiconducting metal. It also has many other properties that can’t be found in other non-metallic materials. In it, every Carbon has a covalent bond with three other Carbon atoms hexagonal array, leaving one free electron per each carbon atom.
The synthesis of Graphene can be done mainly by 3 methods, they are:
- Chemical Vapor Deposition
- Chemical or Plasma Exfoliation from natural Graphite
- Mechanical cleavage from natural Graphite
Aim:- Synthesis of Graphene.
This Guide to Graphene Synthesis, Properties, and Applications is intended to convey a general understanding of these topics for both Scientists & Non-Scientists alike.
Chemicals:- H2SO4, Graphite flakes, H3PO4, KMnO4, H2O2, HCL, Ethanol, distilled water.
Equipment:- Stirrer, Ice bath filter of polyester fibre, PTFE Membrane, U.S. Standard testing sieve.
- 9:1 mixture of H2SO4 / H3PO4 (Concentration) was added to a mixture of graphite flakes(3gm).
- 18gm, 6wt equivalent KMnO4 was added to produce slight exotherm to 30-400c.
- The mixer is heated to 500 c and stirred for 12 hours.
- The mixture was then poured onto the ice with 30% H2O2 (3ml).
- The mixture was shifted through a metal U.S. standard testing sieve (300m) and filtered through polyester fibre.
- Filter was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 4 hours and the supernatant was decanted away.
- The solid material was then washed in succession with 200 ml. of water, 200 ml. of 30% HCL and 200 ml. of ethanol (2x) for each wash the mixture was shifted through the U.S. standard testing sieve and filtered through polyester fibre.
- Multiple wash process was coagulated with 200 ml. of ethanol and the resulting suspension was filtered over a PTFE membrane with .45μm pore size.
- The solid, obtained on the filter was vacuum dried overnight at room temperature is the desired product.
Graphene has been synthesized.