|S.N.||Characteristics||Innate Immunity||Adaptive Immunity|
|1.||Synonyms||Nonspecific, natural immunity||Specific, acquired immunity|
|2.||Outline||The defence mechanisms that are non-antigen specific and immediately come into play on the antigen’s appearance in the body.||The defence mechanism that is not always present but involves antigen-specific immune response.|
|3.||Order of defence||It is the first line of defence of the immune system.||It is the action against pathogens that can evade or overcome innate immune defences.|
|4.||State at birth||Presence since birth.||Acquired during a lifetime.|
|5.||Presence||Always present in the body itself.||Developed only upon exposure to antigens.|
|7.||Cells involved||Physical epithelial barriers, Phagocytic leukocyte, Dendritic cells, Natural killer (NK) cell, Mast cells etc.||Killer CD8+ T-cells, Helper CD4+ T-cells, B-cells, Antigen presenting cells etc.|
|8.||Molecules involved||Cytokines, Complements, Interferon, Acute phase proteins.||Antibodies Cytokines|
|9.||Fights against||Fights any foreign invader and thus is non-specific.||Ability to fight a specific infection.|
|10.||Receptors involved||Uses receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS, flagellin, nucleic acids.||Uses recombined B- and T-cell receptors that recognise specific antigens on pathogens|
|11.||Effector function||Constitutive effective functions encoded in the germline (inflammation, phagocytosis)||Inducible effector functions (proliferation, activation, maturation, differentiation)|
|12.||Response time||Occurs rapidly from minutes to hours.||Occurs over days to weeks.|
|13.||Immunological memory||Does not confer memory||Confer immunological memory|
|14.||Directed against||Innate immunity is directed towards types of molecules.||It is directed towards specific epitopes.|
|15.||Subsequent exposure||The immune response does not alter repeated exposure.||Immune response improves with each successive exposure.|
|16.||Types of immune response||Types of adaptive immune responses: Inflammation, Complement-mediated killing, Phagocytosis etc.||Mainly two types of adaptive immune responses: humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies created by B lymphocytes, and cell-mediated immunity, mediated by T lymphocytes(white blood cell).|
|17.||Changeability||May vary between individuals but does not change over the course of an individual lifetime||Immunity is generated by recombination of V, D, and J regions and further hyper variation thus may change.|
|19.||Potency||Limited and Lower potency||Higher potency|
|20.||Inheritance||Inherited from parents||Not inherited from parents|
|21.||Time span||Once activated against a specific type of antigen; the immunity remains throughout the life.||The span of developed immunity can be lifelong or short.|
|22.||Complexity||Innate immune response is simple.||More complex than the innate immune response.|
|23.||Anatomic and physiological barriers||Skin, Mucous membranes, Temp, pH, chemicals, etc.||Lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue.|
|24.||Allergy or Hypersensitivity reaction||None||Immediate and Delay hypersensitivity|
|25.||Complement system activation||Alternative and lectin pathways||Classical pathway|
|26.||Found in||Found in nearly all forms of life.||Found only in jawed vertebrates.|
|27.||Factors are causing immune evasion||Caused by pathogenic virulence factor. Often involves disabling the conserved pattern recognition used by innate system||Caused by mutation of the known antigen.|
|28.||Functions||a) Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection) Activation of the complement cascade to identify antigens|
c) Identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph.
d) The activation of an adaptive immune system within antigen presentation.
e) This act as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents.
|a) Recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during the process of antigen presentation.b) Production of responses that are tailored to maximally reduce particular pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.|
c) Development of immunological memory, through memory B cells and memory T cells.
|29.||Examples||White blood cells are fighting bacteria, causing redness and swelling during a cut.||Treatment by Chickenpox vaccination such that an individual does not develop chickenpox as adaptive immunity forms immunological memory.|