Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

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Difference-between-Innate-and-Adaptive-Immunity

S.N.CharacteristicsInnate ImmunityAdaptive Immunity
1.SynonymsNonspecific, natural immunitySpecific, acquired immunity
2.OutlineThe defence mechanisms that are non-antigen specific and immediately come into play on the antigen’s appearance in the body.The defence mechanism that is not always present but involves antigen-specific immune response.
3.Order of defenceIt is the first line of defence of the immune system.It is the action against pathogens that can evade or overcome innate immune defences.
4.State at birthPresence since birth.Acquired during a lifetime.
5.PresenceAlways present in the body itself.Developed only upon exposure to antigens.
6.InducibleNoYes
7.Cells involvedPhysical epithelial barriers, Phagocytic leukocyte, Dendritic cells, Natural killer (NK) cell, Mast cells etc.Killer CD8+ T-cells, Helper CD4+ T-cells, B-cells, Antigen presenting cells etc.
8.Molecules involvedCytokines, Complements, Interferon, Acute phase proteins.Antibodies Cytokines
9.Fights againstFights any foreign invader and thus is non-specific.Ability to fight a specific infection.
10.Receptors involvedUses receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS, flagellin, nucleic acids.Uses recombined B- and T-cell receptors that recognise specific antigens on pathogens
11.Effector functionConstitutive effective functions encoded in the germline (inflammation, phagocytosis)Inducible effector functions (proliferation, activation, maturation, differentiation)
12.Response timeOccurs rapidly from minutes to hours.Occurs over days to weeks.
13.Immunological memoryDoes not confer memoryConfer  immunological memory
14.Directed againstInnate immunity is directed towards types of molecules.It is directed towards specific epitopes.
15.Subsequent exposureThe immune response does not alter repeated exposure.Immune response improves with each successive exposure.
16.Types of immune responseTypes of adaptive immune responses: Inflammation, Complement-mediated killing, Phagocytosis etc.Mainly two types of adaptive immune responses: humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies created by B lymphocytes, and cell-mediated immunity, mediated by T lymphocytes(white blood cell).
17.ChangeabilityMay vary between individuals but does not change over the course of an individual lifetimeImmunity is generated by recombination of V, D, and J regions and further hyper variation thus may change.
18.DiversityLimitedDiverse
19.PotencyLimited and Lower potencyHigher potency
20.InheritanceInherited from parentsNot inherited from parents
21.Time spanOnce activated against a specific type of antigen; the immunity remains throughout the life.The span of developed immunity can be lifelong or short.
22.ComplexityInnate immune response is simple.More complex than the innate immune response.
23.Anatomic and physiological barriersSkin, Mucous membranes, Temp, pH, chemicals, etc.Lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue.
24.Allergy or Hypersensitivity reactionNoneImmediate and Delay hypersensitivity
25.Complement system activationAlternative and lectin pathwaysClassical pathway
26.Found inFound in nearly all forms of life.Found only in jawed vertebrates.
27.Factors are causing immune evasionCaused by pathogenic virulence factor. Often involves disabling the conserved pattern recognition used by innate systemCaused by mutation of the known antigen.
28.Functionsa) Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection) Activation of the complement cascade to identify antigens

c) Identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph.

d) The activation of an adaptive immune system within antigen presentation.

e) This act as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents.

a) Recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during the process of antigen presentation.b) Production of responses that are tailored to maximally reduce particular pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

c) Development of immunological memory, through memory B cells and memory T cells.

29.ExamplesWhite blood cells are fighting bacteria, causing redness and swelling during a cut.Treatment by Chickenpox vaccination such that an individual does not develop chickenpox as adaptive immunity forms immunological memory.

 

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