Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity



S.N. Characteristics Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity
1. Synonyms Nonspecific, natural immunity Specific, acquired immunity
2. Outline The defence mechanisms that are non-antigen specific and immediately come into play on the antigen’s appearance in the body. The defence mechanism that is not always present but involves antigen-specific immune response.
3. Order of defence It is the first line of defence of the immune system. It is the action against pathogens that can evade or overcome innate immune defences.
4. State at birth Presence since birth. Acquired during a lifetime.
5. Presence Always present in the body itself. Developed only upon exposure to antigens.
6. Inducible No Yes
7. Cells involved Physical epithelial barriers, Phagocytic leukocyte, Dendritic cells, Natural killer (NK) cell, Mast cells etc. Killer CD8+ T-cells, Helper CD4+ T-cells, B-cells, Antigen presenting cells etc.
8. Molecules involved Cytokines, Complements, Interferon, Acute phase proteins. Antibodies Cytokines
9. Fights against Fights any foreign invader and thus is non-specific. Ability to fight a specific infection.
10. Receptors involved Uses receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS, flagellin, nucleic acids. Uses recombined B- and T-cell receptors that recognise specific antigens on pathogens
11. Effector function Constitutive effective functions encoded in the germline (inflammation, phagocytosis) Inducible effector functions (proliferation, activation, maturation, differentiation)
12. Response time Occurs rapidly from minutes to hours. Occurs over days to weeks.
13. Immunological memory Does not confer memory Confer  immunological memory
14. Directed against Innate immunity is directed towards types of molecules. It is directed towards specific epitopes.
15. Subsequent exposure The immune response does not alter repeated exposure. Immune response improves with each successive exposure.
16. Types of immune response Types of adaptive immune responses: Inflammation, Complement-mediated killing, Phagocytosis etc. Mainly two types of adaptive immune responses: humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies created by B lymphocytes, and cell-mediated immunity, mediated by T lymphocytes(white blood cell).
17. Changeability May vary between individuals but does not change over the course of an individual lifetime Immunity is generated by recombination of V, D, and J regions and further hyper variation thus may change.
18. Diversity Limited Diverse
19. Potency Limited and Lower potency Higher potency
20. Inheritance Inherited from parents Not inherited from parents
21. Time span Once activated against a specific type of antigen; the immunity remains throughout the life. The span of developed immunity can be lifelong or short.
22. Complexity Innate immune response is simple. More complex than the innate immune response.
23. Anatomic and physiological barriers Skin, Mucous membranes, Temp, pH, chemicals, etc. Lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue.
24. Allergy or Hypersensitivity reaction None Immediate and Delay hypersensitivity
25. Complement system activation Alternative and lectin pathways Classical pathway
26. Found in Found in nearly all forms of life. Found only in jawed vertebrates.
27. Factors are causing immune evasion Caused by pathogenic virulence factor. Often involves disabling the conserved pattern recognition used by innate system Caused by mutation of the known antigen.
28. Functions a) Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection) Activation of the complement cascade to identify antigens

c) Identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph.

d) The activation of an adaptive immune system within antigen presentation.

e) This act as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents.

a) Recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during the process of antigen presentation.b) Production of responses that are tailored to maximally reduce particular pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

c) Development of immunological memory, through memory B cells and memory T cells.

29. Examples White blood cells are fighting bacteria, causing redness and swelling during a cut. Treatment by Chickenpox vaccination such that an individual does not develop chickenpox as adaptive immunity forms immunological memory.


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